Hoang Van Thang
Centre for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies (CRES),
Vietnam National University, Ha Noi


Ecosystem service trade-offs arise from management choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. Tradeoffs occur when the provision of one ecosystem service is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ecosystem service over time and scale. Trade-offs language has become commonly used world-wide as well as in Vietnam. As one of a few countries which are most impacted by climate change, Vietnam has faced more difficulties in conservation of biodiversity or the ecosystem services which derived from it in the context of climate change.

The challenge for conservationists is to explicitly acknowledge the need to share risks and costs. Often hard choices need to be made and these must be explicitly acknowledged. Not to do so leads to unrealized expectations and ultimately unresolved conflicts.

Win-win scenarios, where both biological diversity and its ecosystem services are conserved and human well-being is improved in specific places over time have been a challenge and contestation for Vietnam as well as for many countries in the world.